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Image Steganography with PIL

October 7, 2009 Leave a comment

Steganography is greek for ‘hidden writing‘; the act of hiding a message inside another message.

In this case, hiding an image inside another image, without it being obvious to the viewer. The example I’ll give here is only a ‘toy’ implementation, for two reasons:-

  • easily cracked: it wouldn’t take the authorities long to spot the hidden message, not least because the algorithm is described on wikipedia 😉
  • fragile: the hidden image-within-an-image can easily be broken, if the image has its colours changed afterwards.

But it does illustrate how to do bitwise-manipulation of images in PIL using the ImageMath module, which is the purpose of the post.

How it works

The watermark – the image we wish to hide – is a bitonal image, with black and white pixels only. It’s then resized to be the same size as the original image.

We ‘smuggle’ the watermark inside the original by replacing the LSB (least significant bit) of each colour channel (R,G and B) in the original with the corresponding pixel in the watermark – either 1 for white, or 0 for black.

This image shows the binary arithmetic…least significant bit on the right.

watermarking

Hiding the watermark image inside our image

For this, we’ll need these imports…

from PIL import Image, ImageMath

and open the two files. The watermark is scaled to match the size of the original image.

watermark=Image.open(r"c:\watermark.png")
original=Image.open(r"c:\original.jpg")
watermark=watermark.resize(original.size)

ImageMath only works with single channel (greyscale) images, so we need to split the two images into their three channels (Red, Green and Blue) using the split() method.

red, green, blue = original.split()
wred, wgreen, wblue = watermark.split()

Now, using ImageMath. ImageMath lets you write simple expressions using values from one or more images. Here, ‘a’ and ‘b’ are bound to the values in the original and watermarked images, respectively. The convert() call is needed to prevent problems later; we need to cast the results back to a greyscale image (mode ‘L’).

red2 = ImageMath.eval("convert(a&0xFE|b&0x1,'L')", a=red, b=wred)
green2 = ImageMath.eval("convert(a&0xFE|b&0x1,'L')", a=green, b=wgreen)
blue2 = ImageMath.eval("convert(a&0xFE|b&0x1,'L')", a=blue, b=wblue)

Okay, so now we have three channels whose LSBs have been replaced with the LSB of the watermark.

But we need to combine the 3 channels back to get an RGB image ready for saving.

out = Image.merge("RGB", (red2, green2, blue2))
out.save(r"c:\merged.png")

Open the original and the processed images; can you see any difference?

Extracting the hidden image

All this is for nought if you can’t extract the hidden image afterwards.

This is simpler, as we only need to produce a black/white image from the LSB of the image. Here, I’ve only bothered with the Red channel.

stegged=Image.open(r"c:\merged.png")
red, green, blue = stegged.split()
watermark=ImageMath.eval("(a&0x1)*255",a=red) # convert to 0 or 255
watermark=watermark.convert("L")
watermark.save(r"c:\extracted-watermark.png")
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